What is Bitcoin?d
Bitcoin is a digital asset and a payment system invented by Satoshi Nakamoto who published a related paper in 2008 and released it as open-source software in 2009. The system featured as peer-to-peer; users can transact directly without an intermediary. Transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called the blockchain. The ledger uses bitcoin as its unit of account. The system works without a central repository or single administrator, which has led the U.S. Treasury to categorize bitcoin as a decentralized virtual currency. Bitcoin is often called the first cryptocurrency, although prior systems existed. Bitcoin is more correctly described as the first decentralized digital currency. It is the largest of its kind in terms of total market value by now.
Bitcoins are created as a reward for payment processing work in which users offer their computing power to verify and record payments into a public ledger. This activity is called mining and miners are rewarded with transaction fees and newly created bitcoins. Besides being obtained by mining, bitcoins can be exchanged for other currencies, products, and services. Users can send and receive bitcoins for an optional transaction fee.
Bitcoin proposes a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
What is Ethereum?
Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party interference. These apps run on a custom built blockchain, an enormously powerful shared global infrastructure that can move value around and represent the ownership of property.
This enables developers to create markets, store registries of debts or promises, move funds in accordance with instructions given long in the past (like a will or a futures contract) and many other things that have not been invented yet, all without a middle man or counterparty risk. The project was bootstrapped via an ether presale in August 2014 by fans all around the world. It is developed by the Ethereum Foundation, a Swiss nonprofit, with contributions from great minds across the globe.
The intent of Ethereum is to create an alternative protocol for building decentralized applications, providing a different set of tradeoffs that we believe will be very useful for a large class of decentralized applications, with particular emphasis on situations where rapid development time, security for small and rarely used applications, and the ability of different applications to very efficiently interact, are important. Ethereum does this by building what is essentially the ultimate abstract foundational layer: a blockchain with a built-in Turing-complete programming language, allowing anyone to write smart contracts and decentralized applications where they can create their own arbitrary rules for ownership, transaction formats and state transition functions. A bare-bones version of Namecoin can be written in two lines of code, and other protocols like currencies and reputation systems can be built in under twenty. Smart contracts, cryptographic "boxes" that contain value and only unlock it if certain conditions are met, can also be built on top of the platform, with vastly more power than that offered by Bitcoin scripting because of the added powers of Turing-completeness, value-awareness, blockchain-awareness and state.
What is OmiseGo?
OmiseGO is a public Ethereum-based financial technology for use in mainstream digital wallets, that enables real-time, peer-to-peer value exchange and payment services agnostically across jurisdictions and organizational silos, and across both fiat money and decentralized currencies. Designed to enable financial inclusion and disrupt existing institutions, access will be made available to everyone via the OmiseGO network and digital wallet framework, starting in Q4 2017.
OmiseGO is the answer to a fundamental coordination problem amongst payment processors, gateways and financial institutions. By enabling decentralized exchange on a public blockchain at high volume and low cost, OmiseGO provides a next-generation value transfer service operating across currencies and asset types. Through the OmiseGO network connected to the Ethereum mainnet, anyone will be able to conduct financial transactions such as payments, remittances, payroll deposit, B2B commerce, supply-chain finance, loyalty programs, asset management and trading, and other on-demand services, in a completely decentralized and inexpensive way.
Further, millions of mainstream users in the largest growing economies in the world will be enabled to make the transition from using fiat money to using decentralized currencies such as ETH, BTC, and others. The OmiseGO network is intrinsically agnostic between fiat and decentralized money: as far as adoption and usage go, the system is constructed so that the best currencies will win.
BAT (Basic Attention Token)Exchange
What is Basic Attention Token（BAT）?
-Digital advertising is broken. It is a market filled with middlemen and fraudsters, hurting users, publishers and advertisers. The Basic Attention Token (BAT) was developed to address this. BAT, an ERC20 token built on top of Ethereum, will be the token of utility in a new, decentralized, open source and efficient blockchain-based digital advertising platform.
-In the ecosystem, advertisers will give publishers BATs based on the measured attention of users. Users will also receive some BATs for participating. They can donate them back to publishers or use them on the platform. This transparent system keeps user data private while delivering fewer but more relevant ads. Publishers experience less fraud while increasing their percentage of rewards. And advertisers get better reporting and performance.
-The first part of the solution, the Brave browser, is already operational. Brave is a fast, open source, privacy-focused browser that blocks ads and trackers, and contains a ledger system that anonymously measures user attention aggregate to accurately reward publishers.
Stage 1: Brave Browser
Brave is a fast, open source, privacy-focused browser that blocks malvertisements, trackers, and contains a ledger system that anonymously captures user attention to accurately reward publishers.
Stage 2: Basic Attention Token
The Basic Attention Token can be used to obtain a variety of advertising and attention-based services on the Brave platform, as it is exchanged between publishers, advertisers, and users.
The token’s utility is derived from — or denominated by — user attention. Attention is really just focused mental engagement — on an advertisement, in this case.
Stages 1 + 2 = A New Deal
The Brave browser knows where users spend their time, making it the perfect tool to calculate and reward publishers with BATs. This service creates a transparent and efficient Blockchain-based digital advertising market. Publishers receive more revenue because middlemen and fraud are reduced. Users, who opt in, receive fewer but better targeted ads that are less prone to malware. And advertisers get better data on their spending. The Brave browser anonymously monitors user attention, then rewards publishers accordingly with BATs.
Attention is measured as users view ads and content in the browser’s active tab in real time. The Attention Value for the ad will be calculated based on incremental duration and pixels in view in proportion to relevant content, prior to any direct engagement with the ad. We will define further anonymous cost-per-action models as the system develops. Ads are then anonymously matched with customer interests using local machine learning algorithms. This means less irrelevant ads.
Brave will work with publishers and advertisers to establish best practices for judging user attention. One potential metric: the number of total views of advertising content for a certain number of seconds. Or, points assigned on the length of a view.
Who Gets What?
Users viewing ads will be rewarded with BATs. BATs can be used for premium content or services on the Brave platform. Publishers will, as part of this service, receive the lion’s share of the total ad revenue. We anticipate that users will also donate back some tokens to publishers, further increasing their revenue.
More Privacy, Less Fraud
Users’ privacy is protected through the use of the ANONIZE algorithm. And ad fraud will be prevented or reduced by publication of source code and cryptographically secure transactions.
Parts of the Solution are Code Complete
Much of the infrastructure required to deploy BAT at the back end is “code complete,” meaning it’s currently in place and being used to distribute donations to publishers based on customer attention. Use it today in the Brave Browser for WIndows, Mac OS and Linux.
What is Aeternity ?
1. Programme Name
2. Project Introduction
Founded in 2016, æternity is an open-source, blockchain-based distributed computing platform that builds on decentralized cryptographic P2P technology. Designed to deliver unmatched productivity, transparent governance, and global scalability, æternity offers blockchain technology with a consensus mechanism that is as efficient and cost-effective as possible.
æternity's unique state channel design enables the off-chain verification of data and smart contracts, allowing for all transactions to be independent of each other, thereby increasing transaction speed and scalability while also ensuring increased privacy.
æternity’s underlying value token is the AE token, which can be transferred between members and is used to compensate participant nodes for any number of computations performed. All AE token users are allowed to participate in the governance of the aeternity blockchain through a voting process, weighted by the number of tokens each user holds.
3. Token Distribution
Total Supply: 273685830, + mining after main net launch
82% of the initial æternity AE tokens will be distributed to the contributors.
1% will be allocated to people who hold BTC or ETH.
17% will get allocated to Aeternity Anstalt, the foundation and the founding team.
What is Waltonchain?
1. Programme Name
2. Project Introduction
Walton Chain uniquely combines blockchain technology with RFID technology, and is committed to advancing the concept of blockchain technology from the Internet to the Internet of Things to realize the value of the Internet of Things. The purpose of the Walton chain is to build a foundation commercial ecological public chain, in which merchants can build a variety of sub-chains according to their own needs. The main feature of this commercial eco-chain is that all data (including property rights attribution data, commodity circulation data, etc.) is reliable, immutable, is timestamped, so that a business ecosystem with integrity and reliability can be established. The team plans to use its proprietary card reader chip and tag chip to enable fast upload of physical good data to the chain throughout the supply chain process. The removal of human interference minimizes the possibility of data tampering. This has the means to achieve traceability and monitoring of the flow status of each commodity.
Total Supply: 70,000,000 WTC (Maximum Supply：100,000,000 WTC)
Token in Circulation: 31,144,099 WTC
Token Price： Please refer to the real-time price on the coinmarketcap: https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/waltonchain/
Angel Investor: 5%
Team Holdings: 10%
4. Token Refund Detail
Reason for Refund: Policy reasons
Amount： Total 465248.97 WTC
Refund Period： before 25 September 2017 12:00
Lockup till： 30 September 2018
Management of Token Refund: This portion of WTC continues to be part of the WTC market circulation amount. Refunded WaltonChain (WTC) tokens will be locked for 1 year and will be unlocked starting 30 September 2018. Refunded tokens will be used to further develop WaltonChain eco-system in accordance with the Foundation’s decision and community feedback, and will have no impact to the total supply of WTC which remains at 70million.
What is ZRX (0X)?
We describe ZRX a protocol that facilitates low friction peer-to-peer exchange of ERC20 tokens on the Ethereum blockchain. The protocol is intended to serve as an open standard and common building block, driving interoperability among decentralized applications (dApps) that incorporate exchange functionality. Trades are executed by a system of Ethereum smart contracts that are publicly accessible, free to use and that any dApp can hook into. DApps built on top of the protocol can access public liquidity pools or create their own liquidity pool and charge transaction fees on the resulting volume. The protocol is unopinionated: it does not impose costs on its users or arbitrarily extract value from one group of users to beneﬁt another. Decentralized governance is used to continuously and securely integrate updates into the base protocol without disrupting dApps or end users.
Each order is a data packet containing order parameters and an associated signature. Order parameters are concatenated and hashed to 32 bytes via the Keccak SHA3 function. The order originator signs the order hash with their private key to produce an ECDSA signature.
1. Point-to-point Orders
Point-to-point orders allow two parties to directly exchange tokens between each other using just about any communication medium they prefer to relay messages. The packet of data that makes up the order is a few hundred bytes of hex that may be sent through email, a Facebook message, whisper or any similar service. The order can only be ﬁlled by the speciﬁed taker address, rendering the order useless for eavesdroppers or outside parties.
2. Broadcast Orders
For liquid markets to emerge, there must be public locations where buyers and sellers may post orders that are subsequently aggregated into order books i.e. exchanges. Building and operating an exchange is costly and the protocol we have described so far does not provide an incentive for someone to take on such an expense. Broadcast orders solve this issue by allowing anyone to act as an exchange, maintain an order book (public or private) and charge transaction fees on all resulting liquidity. We refer to entities that host and maintain an order book as Relayers rather than exchanges. Where an exchange must build and operate proprietary infrastructure, execute trades and handle user funds, Relayers merely facilitate signaling between market participants by hosting and propagating an order book that consists of generic messages. Relayers do not execute trades on behalf of market participants as this would require market participants to trust the Relayer. Instead, Takers execute their own trades.
The message format for broadcast orders includes two changes to the point-to-point message format to facilitate public exchange and incentivize Relayers. First, broadcast orders do not specify a taker address, allowing a broadcast order to be ﬁlled by anyone that happens to intercept it. Second, broadcast orders include feeA, feeB, and feeRecipient parameters which specify transaction fee values and an address used by a Relayer to collect transaction fees. The exchange smart contract transfers these fees to feeRecipient if and when an order is ﬁlled. Figure 3 presents the sequence of steps Makers and Relayers use to negotiate transaction fees in a trustless way.
Yoc is a fully decentralized platform. Its main function is an opportunity to create and place smart contracts and the decentralized applications on its basis. It is difficult to overestimate the advantages of these applications since they minimize any risks connected with different types of activity.
The management of finance when the ICO is carried out, service insurance, trade, logistics, the creation of partner programs, the creation of new platforms for gamblings are the most popular spheres of use of these contracts and applications nowadays. It is an incomplete list of potential opportunities of the blockchain technology use. The Yoc platforms allow involving in a simple and convenient way to use the full resources of the most modern and advanced technologies existing nowadays.
New opportunities for crowdfunding The new platform provides an absolutely new approach to crowdfunding. By means of the YOC platform, you have an opportunity to exclude a trust component between you as a future supplier of goods or service and the investor, to which whether it is peculiar to doubt decision-making to invest own money in the realization of your idea. You have an opportunity to create such conditions, having provided their smart with the contract which will allow storing money of the investor, the conditions stipulated in him won't be satisfied yet.
In case of your success money will surely pass to you, and in case of your failure they will return to the investor, at the same time terms of the contract won't be able to be changed after the start of the contract in any way. At the same time, you can avoid the need to have the centralized arbitrator, the center of exchange of information or any other tool which needs to trust. In the same way, you can control the distribution of remunerations to investors who have supported your project at his early stage, and now have to receive all that is due to them.
How to create a democratically autonomous organization?
Imagine how any centralized organization works. There are people responsible for the adoption of strategic and vital decisions works. People who create a huge number of documents and reports, accountants who are engaged in the accounting of material values, etc. So, all of them can be mistaken as there are no people who are able to commit now mistakes. Their opinion can be prejudiced or represent the interests of any certain group of people, infringing upon the interests of other participants in the process given business.
The YOC platform gives an opportunity to avoid it. It’s possible to give the management of all these processes to the robot which is impartial and will carry out all necessary actions according to the conditions which are written down in a smart contract. It would absolutely commit no mistakes. Allocate with an opportunity to vote for acceptance of important questions of the organization life of all participants according to a share of their general participation. It will be able to receive an absolutely transparent and honest adoption of this decision. When all of this is provided with the decentralized network, you will always provide smoothly working service.
Yobank is a financial start-up that is planning to develop an online cryptocurrency bank. Their biggest difference from the other popular cryptocurrency companies is that Yobank wants to be a decentralized, but also a regulated bank.
Instead of going with the current flow of the unregularized cryptocurrency market, Yobank plans to be a proper bank that you will be able to use to store cryptocurrency and have all the other functions that banks normally have, like a credit card, ATMs and all of the other operations that banks normally make.
This way, Yobank intends to differentiate itself from the other companies in the cryptocurrency market by having a regulated bank that will act just like normal non-blockchain banks do, but with more efficiency and speed.
Today Circle and the CENTRE open source consortium introduced a service to tokenize US dollars and use those dollars over public blockchains on the internet: USD Coin, also known as USDC. Individuals and institutions can enroll in this service to deposit US dollars from bank accounts, convert those dollars into tokens usable everywhere the internet reaches (subject to the token’s compliance controls), and redeem USDC tokens and cash out to bank accounts.
In addition to immediate usage on Circle Poloniex and Circle Trade, more than 20 companies are also announcing or launching support for USDC today. Other wallets, exchanges, and software applications can add support for the USDC token through the open ERC-20 standard.
Price-stable tokens are foundational requirements for enabling powerful new global financial contracts, products, and services on the internet. USDC is the first of several fiat tokens CENTRE expects to deliver, and Circle is the first of several forthcoming CENTRE members to launch USDC issuance.